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Asian Blepharoplasty: Ageing Patterns, Anatomophysiological Considerations and Ethnic Differences

Ageing results in the gradual loss of elastic fibers and relaxation of skin, giving it a loose appearance, and one of the most prominent areas to show signs of ageing is in the eyes. It has been argued that muscle ptosis of the eye area contribute to the ageing of the eyelids, especially so for upper eyelids as the periorbital fat (ie, the retro–orbicularis oculi fat) in the upper periorbita occasionally bulge excessively due to the result of ageing. Such anatomical changes may result in various functional and cosmetic deformities, such as, but not limited to, ptosis and limitation of visual fields and/or unattractive upper eyelids, requiring either one to undergo surgical or non-surgical in

Injectable Tissue Replacement and Regeneration (ITR²): Anatomic Fat Grafting - A Unique Anti-Ageing

Ageing is a dynamic process that can be modelled and understood tissue by tissue, cell by cell - this can be done by breaking down the anatomy of facial fat compartments, so that a practitioner can better understand the effects of ageing on facial tissues such as skin, fat, bone and fibrous ligaments. The ageing process is a complex interaction between individual genetic composition and the body’s particular responses to the outside and inside environment. These interactions lead to progressive deterioration of tissues and cells over time, beginning during stages of growth and development. Despite the body doing its best to supply new cells as others die, the natural process is not exactly s

Liposuction & Fat Transfer: Types of Anaesthesia and the Different Techniques in Liposuction

Generally defined as the removal of fat from deposits beneath the skin using a cannula with the assistance of a powerful vacuum, liposuction has become one of the most sought after cosmetic surgery around the world with more than 258,558 procedures being performed in 2018 in the United States alone. The increased in the number of procedures performed has also led to the increase in the number reports on adverse outcomes - therefore, it is important that a practitioner should understand the pathophysiology of obesity and fluid management during liposuction and be aware of the complications. Types of Anaesthesia In general, liposuction may be performed under local, regional, or general anaesth

Cheiloplasty: Ethnic Differences, Aesthetic Perceptions, Techniques and Approaches in Lip Augmentati

Despite it being the centre of facial harmony and beauty, the lips is often neglected in facial rejuvenation procedures, until recently. This could be attributed to the greater focus by surgeons and patients on other features such as the eyes and nose, inability to recognize imperfections, inexperience with lip lifting, or dissatisfaction with current techniques. Regardless the reasons, it is important for an aesthetic practitioner to pay attention to all aspects of a patient’s face, as it is essential to achieving superlative results in overall facial rejuvenation. While genetics may predispose patients to dysmorphologies in the lower third of the face, ageing also alters the overall facial

Liposuction & Fat Transfer: Anatomic Considerations and Treatment Options

Since its initial presentation by Dr. Yves-Gerard Illouz in 1982, liposuction has evolved tremendously in all aspects, especially in terms of techniques and technology. These advances have significantly improved the overall safety and general results of liposuction and fat transfer procedures. While the notion of introducing and implementing new techniques and technology in practice can be exciting, a practitioner must never stray from the basic fundamentals of treatment that have been proven by solid scientific evidences. Anatomic Considerations General Surgical Layers of Fat: Superficial, Intermediate, and Deep For the purposes of liposuction and body contouring, subcutaneous fat is arbitr

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